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Is this dandruff, psoriasis or another scalp issue????

Is this dandruff, psoriasis or another scalp issue?

Many people suffer from several scalp issues that result in dryness and irritation. Today, we are going to discuss scalp issues and the options and treatments for them.

No matter the person or the ethnic group, everyone at times suffer from some form of dry scalp, dandruff, psoriasis or even rashes or bumps on the scalp. Some of these conditions are mild, but some need to be brought to the attention of a licensed doctor, dermatologist or specialist. If you notice anything abnormal about your scalp or hair, please do not take matters into your own hands and self-treat. Sometimes we are making a situation worse or make it last longer, due to home remedies. I'm not saying that some of the old school solutions do not work, but know when you are dealing with a situation too long or something looks weird or hurts.


The main question that some may have is what causes dandruff, psoriasis or other scalp issues? Well, we will discuss each issue individually below and we will list some suggestions for each category.


Dandruff: what is it, the cause of it and some solutions to it?

Dandruff is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp.[1] Symptoms include flaking and sometimes mild itchiness.[1] It can result in social or self-esteem problems.[2][1] A more severe form of the condition, which includes inflammation of the skin, is known as seborrhoeic dermatitis.[1]

The cause is unclear, but believed to involve a number of genetic and environmental factors.[1] The condition may worsen in the winter.[3] It is not due to poor hygiene.[4] The underlying mechanism involves the excessive growth of skin cells.[3] Diagnosis is based on symptoms.[1]

There is no known cure for dandruff.[5] Antifungal cream, such as ketoconazole, may be used to try to improve the condition.[1] Dandruff affects about half of adults, with males more often affected than females.[1] Onset is usually at puberty, with rates decreasing after the age of 50.[1]

Also, there are shampoos that help aide in dandruff relief. You can purchase medicated or non-medicated shampoo, from a pharmacy or doctor’s office.


Psoriasis: what is it, the cause of it and some solutions to it?

Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.[6] These skin patches are typically red, dry, itchy, and scaly.[3] On people with darker skin the patches may be purple in color.[9] Psoriasis varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage.[3] Injury to the skin can trigger psoriatic skin changes at that spot, which is known as the Koebner phenomenon.[10]

There are five main types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic.[6] Plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, makes up about 90 percent of cases.[4] It typically presents as red patches with white scales on top.[4] Areas of the body most commonly affected are the back of the forearms, shins, navel area, and scalp.[4] Guttate psoriasis has drop-shaped lesions.[6] Pustular psoriasis presents as small non-infectious pus-filled blisters.[11] Inverse psoriasis forms red patches in skin folds.[6] Erythrodermic psoriasis occurs when the rash becomes very widespread, and can develop from any of the other types.[4] Fingernails and toenails are affected in most people with psoriasis at some point in time.[4] This may include pits in the nails or changes in nail color.[4]

There is no cure for psoriasis; however, various treatments can help control the symptoms.[4] These treatments include steroid creams, vitamin D3 cream, ultraviolet light and immune system suppressing medications, such as methotrexate.[6] About 75 percent of skin involvement improves with creams alone.[4] The disease affects two to four percent of the population.[8] Men and women are affected with equal frequency.[6] The disease may begin at any age, but typically starts in adulthood.[5] Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, Crohn disease, and depression.[4] Psoriatic arthritis affects up to 30 percent of individuals with psoriasis.[11]


Other Scalp Conditions??

The scalp is a common place for the development of tumor’s including:

· Actinic keratosis

· Basal-cell carcinoma

· Epidermoid cyst

· Merkel-cell carcinoma

· Pilar cyst

· Squamous cell carcinoma

· Cutis verticis gyrata – a descriptive term for a rare deformity of the scalp

· Head lice

· Seborrhoeic dermatitis – a skin disorder causing scaly, flaky, itchy, red ski

. Cradle cap – a form of seborrhoeic dermatitis which occurs in newborns

· Tycoon's cap, also known as acne necrotica miliaris, characterized by pustules and itching


After the end of this discussion, if you are still unsure of what is going on with your scalp; then please seek counsel from a physician.









References:

1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Borda, Luis (2015). "Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Comprehensive Review". Journal of Clinical and Investigative Dermatology. 3 (2). doi:10.13188/2373-1044.1000019. PMC 4852869. PMID 27148560.

2. ^ Grimalt, R. (December 2007). "A Practical Guide to Scalp Disorders". Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings. 12 (2): 10–14. doi:10.1038/sj.jidsymp.5650048. PMID 18004290.

3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Ranganathan, S; Mukhopadhyay, T (2010). "Dandruff: the most commercially exploited skin disease". Indian Journal of Dermatology. 55 (2): 130–4. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.62734. PMC 2887514. PMID 20606879.

4. ^ Jump up to:a b "Dandruff: How to treat". American Academy of Dermatology. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.

5. ^ Turkington, Carol; Dover, Jeffrey S. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Skin and Skin Disorders (Third ed.). Facts On File, Inc. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8160-6403-8. Archivedfrom the original on 19 May 2016.

6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Turner, GA; Hoptroff, M; Harding, CR (August 2012). "Stratum corneum dysfunction in dandruff". International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 34 (4): 298–306. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2494.2012.00723.x. PMC 3494381. PMID 22515370.

7. ^ "What Is Dandruff? Learn All About Dandruff". Medical News Today. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015.

8. ^ DeAngelis YM, Gemmer CM, Kaczvinsky JR, Kenneally DC, Schwartz JR, Dawson TL (2005). "Three etiologic facets of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: Malassezia fungi, sebaceous lipids, and individual sensitivity". J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 10 (3): 295–7. doi:10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10119.x. PMID 16382685.

9. ^ Jump up to:a b Ro BI, Dawson TL (2005). "The role of sebaceous gland activity and scalp microfloral metabolism in the etiology of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff". J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 10 (3): 194–7. doi:10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10104.x. PMID 16382662.

10. ^ Ashbee HR, Evans EG (2002). "Immunology of Diseases Associated with Malassezia Species". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15 (1): 21–57. doi:10.1128/CMR.15.1.21-57.2002. PMC 118058. PMID 11781265.

11. ^ Batra R, Boekhout T, Guého E, Cabañes FJ, Dawson TL, Gupta AK (2005). "Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts". FEMS Yeast Res. 5 (12): 1101–13. doi:10.1016/j.femsyr.2005.05.006. PMID 16084129.

12. ^ "dandruff | dandriff, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2015. Web. Retrieved 27 April 2015.

13. Boehncke WH, Schön MP (September 2015). "Psoriasis". Lancet. 386 (9997): 983–94. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61909-7. PMID 26025581.

14.^ Jump up to:a b c "Questions and Answers About Psoriasis". www.niams.nih.gov. 12 April 2017. Archived from the original on 22 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.

15.^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h "Questions and Answers about Psoriasis". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. October 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.

16.^ GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.

17.^ Jump up to:a b c d Parisi R, Symmons DP, Griffiths CE, et al. (February 2013). Identification and Management of Psoriasis and Associated ComorbidiTy (IMPACT) project team. "Global epidemiology of psoriasis: a systematic review of incidence and prevalence". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 133 (2): 377–85. doi:10.1038/jid.2012.339. PMID 23014338.

18.^ LeMone P, Burke K, Dwyer T, Levett-Jones T, Moxham L, Reid-Searl K (2015). Medical-Surgical Nursing. Pearson Higher Education AU. p. 454. ISBN 9781486014408.

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